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SAPO code overview


The SAPO documentation is under development!

The SAPO (Simple Approximate Physical Orbitals) code reads DFT wavefunctions from WFN file, generates additional wavefunctions on top of them, and writes both to another WFN file. It can generate plane waves, decompose them into irreducible representations of the space group of the Bravais lattice or the crystal, and orthonormalize them with respect to DFT wavefunctions. It can insert SIESTA wavefunctions read from auxiliary WFN file in between plane waves and orthonormalize them altogether. It can apply a random variation to the plane waves and SIESTA wavefunctions or generate completely random wavefunctions and orthonormalize them. It can correct eigenvalues during orthonormalization or perform subspace diagonalization. It can drop the plane waves and SIESTA wavefunctions which have a large overlap with DFT wavefunctions. It can keep wavefunctions with the eigenvalues in a given energy range. It can extract eigenvalues and plane wave coefficients from WFN file for plotting purposes.

The SAPO method is described in Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 186404 (2011).

A few notes:

  • When using iterative Davidson diagonalization, it is recommended to generate VXC rather than vxc.dat in pw2bgw run, then compute matrix elements of VXC between SAPO wavefunctions. This is more consistent than using vxc.dat because vxc.dat is computed between ESPRESSO wavefunctions, and those might be slightly different from SAPO wavefunctions.

  • wfng_input_file should contain all occupied orbitals (and may or may not contain some unoccupied orbitals), otherwise occupations written to wfng_output_file will be wrong.

  • Symmetrization of planewaves (sapo_symmetry .gt. 0) has no effect on a SAPO calculation since it is just a linear combination in a degenerate subspace. It is currently disabled because it requires symmetry subroutines from Quantum ESPRESSO which are not compatible with our BSD-type license. To enable it: open MeanField/SAPO/pw.f90; comment out die; uncomment calls to s_axis_to_cart, find_group, set_irr_rap, and divide_class; and link the corresponding routines from Quantum ESPRESSO.

SAPO input file (sapo.inp)

Below is a typical example of a SAPO input file, sapo.inp:

   wfng_input_file = ''
   wfng_aux_file = ''
   vlr_input_file = ''
   vnlg_input_file = ''
   wfng_output_file = 'wfng.out'
   sapo_band_number = 0
   sapo_planewave_min = 1
   sapo_planewave_max = 580
   sapo_energy_shift = 0.0
   sapo_energy_match = .true.
   sapo_symmetry = 2
   sapo_print_ir = .true.
   aux_flag = .false.
   aux_band_min = 0
   aux_band_max = 0
   aux_energy_shift = 0.0
   sapo_random = 1
   sapo_random_ampl = 1.0d-3
   sapo_overlap_flag = .false.
   sapo_overlap_max = 0.0
   sapo_orthonormal = .true.
   sapo_ortho_block = 0
   sapo_ortho_order = 0
   sapo_ortho_energy = .false.
   sapo_energy_sort = .false.
   sapo_hamiltonian = .false.
   sapo_energy_range = .false.
   sapo_energy_min = 0.0
   sapo_energy_max = 0.0
   sapo_check_norm = .false.
   sapo_plot_kpoint = 0
   sapo_plot_spin = 0
   sapo_plot_bandmin = 0
   sapo_plot_bandmax = 0
   sapo_plot_pwmin = 0
   sapo_plot_pwmax = 0
   sapo_eigenvalue = .false.
   sapo_projection = 0
   sapo_amplitude = .false.
   sapo_ampl_num = 0
   sapo_ampl_del = 0.0
   sapo_ampl_brd = 0.0

In this example, the wavefunctions are read from file and written to wfng.out file. The parameter sapo_band_number specifies the number of wavefunctions to be read from the input file (if set to 0 all the wavefunctions will be read). The PW wavefunctions will be constructed from plane waves ranging from 1 (sapo_planewave_min) to 580 (sapo_planewave_max). The kinetic energies of the plane waves will be shifted to match the eigenvalues of the input wavefunctions (sapo_energy_match). The plane waves will be decomposed into irreducible representations of the space group of the Bravais lattice (sapo_symmetry = 2), and the decomposition will be printed to the standard output (sapo_print_ir). The auxiliary wavefunctions will not be inserted in between the PW wavefunctions (aux_flag). A random variation (sapo_random = 1) with a small amplitude (sapo_random_ampl = 1.0d-3) will be added to the PW wavefunctions. The PW wavefunctions will be orthonormalized with respect to the valence and conduction bands (sapo_orthonormal) in the ascending order with respect to energy (sapo_ortho_order = 0). The orthonormality check will not be performed (sapo_check_norm). The energy eigenvalues, the projections of wavefunctions onto plane waves, and the squared absolute values of amplitudes of the wavefunctions with respect to kinetic energies of plane waves will not be plotted (sapo_eigenvalue, sapo_projection, and sapo_amplitude).

The auxiliary wavefunctions can be used in two different ways:

  1. Use hybrid valence wavefunctions as wfng_input_file and LDA conduction wavefunctions as wfng_aux_file, set sapo_planewave_min and sapo_planewave_max to 0, sapo_orthonormal to .true. and sapo_ortho_block to 1. This way you will get a good starting point for nscf hybrid calculations in PARATEC or ESPRESSO.

  2. Use Siesta wrapper in MeanField/SIESTA directory to construct the resonant states from SIESTA wavefunctions (look into MeanField/SIESTA/README for details on how to use siesta2bgw), feed them to the SAPO code through wfng_aux_file parameter, and generate continuum states from plane waves by setting sapo_planewave_max to a large number. Also set sapo_orthonormal, sapo_ortho_block and sapo_ortho_order to orthonormalize the resonant and continuum states in the desired order with respect to the bound states from PARATEC or ESPRESSO. You may want to set sapo_ortho_energy to .true. for correcting the eigenvalues during the orthonormalization, or to set sapo_hamiltonian to .true. for correcting both the wavefunctions and the eigenvalues by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. The latter requires the local potential file in Gaussian Cube format (vlr_input_file), and optionally the non-local pseudopotential file (vnlg_input_file). Finally, set sapo_energy_sort to .true. for sorting the resonant and continuum states by their eigenvalues before writing them to the output file. You may also set sapo_energy_range to .true. for keeping the eigenvalues in the energy range of sapo_energy_min to sapo_energy_max.


If you don't know or don't want to manually set sapo_planewave_min and aux_band_min, set both of them to 1, sapo_overlap_flag to .true., and sapo_overlap_max to 0.3. This will automatically throw away plane-waves and auxiliary states that have large overlaps (scalar products > 0.3) with DFT states and among themselves. The scalar products of PW and AUX states with DFT states will be written to files overlap_dft_k#_s#.dat, and the scalar products of PW states with AUX states will be written to files overlap_aux_k#_s#.dat, so you can inspect what states were thrown away after the run.